Children who receive positive attention and care from their parents tend to have higher incomes, higher levels of happiness, academic success and a strong sense of morality, according to new research.
Led by Professor Nishimura Kazua of the Kobe University Centre for Social Systems Innovation, the researchers sought to discover the effects of different parenting methods in Japan.
To do so, they conducted an online survey of 5000 men and women, questioning participants about their relationships with their parents during childhood.
Survey participants were asked to respond to statements like: "My parents trusted me" and " I felt like my family had no interest in me." From there, the team highlighted four key factors: (dis)interest, trust, rules and independence in addition to "time spent together" and "experiences of being scolded."
After analysing their data, the researchers were able to divide the parenting methods into six categories:
High or average levels of independence, high levels of trust, high levels of interest shown in child, large amount of time spent together.
Low levels of independence, medium-to-high levels of trust, strict or fairly strict, medium-to-high levels of interest shown in child, large amount of rules.
High or average levels of trust, not strict at all, time spent together is average or longer than average.
Low levels of interest shown in child, not strict at all, small amount of time spent together, few rules.
Low levels of interest shown in child, low levels of independence, low levels of trust, strict.
Average levels for all key factors.
Results highlighted that men and women who remembered experiencing supportive parenting reported high salaries, academic success and high levels of happiness.
In contrast, participants whose parents were strict reported high salaries and academic success, but lower happiness and more stress.
The findings will be presented at the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), a Japanese policy think tank.