When my youngest child was born in 2005, the flip phone was still the coolest piece of tech you could get. Now I'm told that all three of my children are part of what demographers are calling iGen.
I spent my career at Microsoft trying to imagine what technology could do, and still I wasn't prepared for smartphones and social media. Like many parents with children my kids' age, I didn't understand how they would transform the way my kids grew up – and the way I wanted to parent. I'm still trying to catch up.
The pace of change is what amazes me most. The challenges my younger daughter will be facing when she starts high school soon are light years away from what my elder daughter, who's now in college, experienced in 2010. My younger daughter's friends live a lot of their lives through filters on Instagram and Snapchat, two apps that didn't even exist when my elder daughter was dipping a toe in social media.
But I am optimistic about what smartphones and social media can do for people. I am thrilled to see kids learning on smartphones, doctors using apps to diagnose diseases and marginalised groups, such as gay and lesbian students, finding support they never had before through social networks.
Still, as a mother who wants to make sure her children are safe and happy, I worry. And I think back to how I might have done things differently. Parents should decide for themselves what works for their family, but I probably would have waited longer before putting a computer in my daughters' pockets. Phones and apps aren't good or bad by themselves, but for adolescents who don't yet have the emotional tools to navigate life's complications and confusions, they can exacerbate the difficulties of growing up: learning how to be kind, coping with feelings of exclusion, taking advantage of freedom while exercising self-control. It's more important than ever to teach empathy from the very beginning, because our kids are going to need it.
For other parents trying to decide how to do their job in a way that feels right, despite the bewildering array of changes brought on by smartphones and social media, I want to share some of the resources that have helped me and my friends. Hopefully, these tips can spark conversation and help parents become resources for each other.
Learn about the issue: This month, The Atlantic ran a long story called "Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?" The headline is a little dire, but then again, so is what's reported in the article. It makes a strong case linking smartphones and social media to emotional distress. For example, eighth graders who use social media more than 10 hours a week are 56 per cent more likely to say they're unhappy than peers who use it less. A lot of the same issues are raised in the documentary Screenagers, whose producers encourage community groups to host screenings. Many parents have told me they like the film because it provides plenty of practical tips.
Unplug: One of my favourite things you can do is plan a "device-free dinner". It's not complicated. It's exactly what it says: an hour around a table without anything that has an on or off switch. Common Sense Media has provided great resources and is turning this simple concept into a movement. We don't allow mobile phones at the dinner table, and in my experience, they're right when they promise "amazing conversation".
Have tough conversations: One of the things that's likely to come up in conversation with your kids is the Netflix show 13 Reasons Why. The hype may have subsided a little since the show first aired, but it's still a hot topic. Every parent has to decide for themselves whether they will let their children watch and, if so, under what conditions. There are some excellent resources from the Jed Foundation to help you make these decisions and talk with your kids about the show, suicide, and what to do if they need help. And I always make sure to tell people about Crisis Text Line, an amazing crisis counselling service that provides free, 24/7 support and resources via text message.
Advocate for your kids: With my oldest daughter in college and my son entering his last year of high school, I've started thinking about how smartphones and social media change the dynamics of college campuses. Many colleges simply don't have the resources available to cope with the mental health needs of their students. Find out more so that you can make sure your kids have the support they need.
The internet is a wonderful thing. It gives kids the freedom to move around in a big world, to experiment, to connect with others. As a parent, though, I know that I am responsible for making sure that my kids are ready for all that freedom – and that they know how to keep themselves safe. Here's to staying on top of all the changes social media is bringing to our kids' lives, so that we can continue to guide and support them in this fast-changing world.
Melinda Gates is a businesswoman and philanthropist. She is co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.